Intranasal haloperidol-loaded miniemulsions for brain targeting: Evaluation of locomotor suppression and in-vivo biodistribution

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Haloperidol is a commonly prescribed antipsychotic drug currently administered as oral and injectable preparations. This study aimed to prepare haloperidol intranasal miniemulsion helpful for psychiatric emergencies and exhibiting lower systemic exposure and side effects associated with non-target site delivery. Haloperidol miniemulsions were successfully prepared by spontaneous emulsification adopting 23 factorial design. The effect of three independent variables at two levels each namely; oil type (Capmul®-Capryol™90), lipophilic emulsifier type (Span 20–Span 80) and HLB value (12–14) on globule size, PDI and percent locomotor activity inhibition in mice was evaluated. The optimized formula (F4, Capmul®, Tween 80/Span 20, HLB 14) showed globule size of 209.5 ± 0.98 nm, PDI of 0.402 ± 0.03 and locomotor inhibition of 83.89 ± 9.15% with desirability of 0.907. Biodistribution study following intranasal and intravenous administration of the radiolabeled 99mTc mucoadhesive F4 revealed that intranasal administration achieved 1.72-fold higher and 6 times faster peak brain levels compared with intravenous administration. Drug targeting efficiency percent and brain/blood exposure ratios remained above 100% and 1 respectively after intranasal instillation compared to a maximum brain/blood exposure ratio of 0.8 post intravenous route. Results suggested the CNS delivery of major fraction of haloperidol via direct transnasal to brain pathway that can be a promising alternative to oral and parenteral routes in chronic and acute situations. Haloperidol concentration of 275.6 ng/g brain 8 h post intranasal instillation, higher than therapeutic concentration range of haloperidol (0.8 to 5.15 ng/ml), suggests possible sustained delivery of the drug through nasal route.

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