Nanovesicular liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) prevents multi-organ injuries in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock

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Abstract

The goals of resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock are to correct oxygen deficit and to maintain perfusion pressure to the vital organs. We created liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) as a nanoparticulate oxygen carrier (216 ± 2 nm) containing 7.2 g/dl hemoglobin, and examined its ability to prevent the systemic manifestations of hemorrhagic shock (45% blood loss) in a rat model. We collected plasma after 6 h of shock and LEH resuscitation, and determined the circulating biomarkers of systemic inflammation and functions of liver, gut, heart, and kidney. As is typical of the shock pathology, a significant increase in the plasma levels of cardiac troponin, liver function enzymes, soluble CD163 (macrophage activation), and creatinine, and the liver/gut myeloperoxidase activity was observed in the hemorrhaged rats. The plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, CINC-1, and IL-22 also increased after hemorrhagic shock. LEH administration prevented the hemorrhagic shock-induced accumulation of the markers of injury to the critical organs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. LEH also decreased the plasma levels of stress hormone corticosterone in hemorrhaged rats. Although saline also reduced the circulating corticosterone and a few other tissue injury markers, it was not as effective as LEH in restraining the plasma levels of creatinine, alanine transaminase, CD163, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1α. These results indicate that resuscitation with nanoparticulate LEH creates a pro-survival phenotype in hemorrhaged rats, and because of its oxygen-carrying capacity, LEH performs significantly better than saline in hemorrhagic shock.

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