Evaluation of ion exchange processes in drug-eluting embolization beads by use of an improved flow-through elution method

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Abstract

An improved method for evaluating drug release behaviour of drug-eluting embolization beads (DEBs) was developed utilizing an open-loop flow-through system, in which the beads were packed into an occlusive mass within the system and extracted with a flowing elution medium over time. Glass beads were introduced into the beads mass in order to ensure laminar flow, reduce dead volume and improve reproducibility by compensating for swelling phenomena. The effects of glass bead ratio, elution medium flow rate and ion concentration, DEB size and drug concentration and drug type (doxorubicin and irinotecan) were evaluated using DEB composed of a sulfonate-modified polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (DC Bead™) as the test article. The rate and amount of drug elution from the packed beads was affected by flow rate, the bead size and initial loading dose. The raw data from the concentration profile analysis provided valuable information to reveal the drug elution behaviour akin to the pharmacokinetic data observed for embolized beads (yielding in vitro Cmax and tmax data) which was complementary to the normal cumulative data obtained. A good correlation with historical reported in vivo data validated the usefulness of the method for predicting in vivo drug elution behaviour.

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