Extracellular vesicles in food: Experimental evidence of their secretion in grape fruits

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In the last decade, the number of studies related with extracellular vesicles (EVs) has dramatically grown since their role as key part of intercellular communication has been confirmed. EVs, as transporter of distinct bioactive molecules, can take part in different physiological mechanisms and have been gaining attention as potential tools with a wide range of therapeutic effects. Whereas a high number of studies have been published related to mammalian derived EVs, including products as food source, the existence of EVs in plants still is controversial. Recent descriptions of vesicles derived from edible plants show that they might contain pharmacological active molecules. In this context, EVs from food are attracting increasing interest due to their relevance in modulating cellular processes (involved in health and disease), as well as therapeutic vehicles. The present work aims to summarize the current knowledge on exosomes in foods, actually limited to only four FAO groups (Milk, Starchy roots and tubers, Nuts and seeds, and Fruits). In addition, we have further characterized EVs isolated from grape berry juice by classical differential centrifugation, and described a preliminary dissection of their secretion in vivo.

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