It was the aim of this work to determine whether the plasma concentration of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in active diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is connected to the inflammatory markers, temperature elevation in the affected foot and concentration of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). EVs were isolated from peripheral blood of 35 patients with active CN. EVs were counted after repetitive centrifugation and washing of samples, by flow cytometry. Foot temperature was measured by infrared thermometer. Concentration of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found statistically significant correlations of EV concentration (but not soluble RAGE concentration) with C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and with temperature difference between the affected and the contralateral foot (r = 0.40, p = 0.032; r = 0.89, p < 10− 8, respectively). We provide evidence that the concentration of EVs is related to elevation of markers of inflammation (CRP and foot temperature difference) in acute Diabetic CN. EV-based markers could be considered as a potential aid in early diagnosis of CN.