Prediction of human CNS pharmacokinetics using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling approach

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Knowledge of drug concentration-time profiles at the central nervous system (CNS) target-site is critically important for rational development of CNS targeted drugs. Our aim was to translate a recently published comprehensive CNS physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model from rat to human, and to predict drug concentration-time profiles in multiple CNS compartments on available human data of four drugs (acetaminophen, oxycodone, morphine and phenytoin).Values of the system-specific parameters in the rat CNS PBPK model were replaced by corresponding human values. The contribution of active transporters for the four selected drugs was scaled based on differences in expression of the pertinent transporters in both species. Model predictions were evaluated with available pharmacokinetic (PK) data in human brain extracellular fluid and/or cerebrospinal fluid, obtained under physiologically healthy CNS conditions (acetaminophen, oxycodone, and morphine) and under pathophysiological CNS conditions where CNS physiology could be affected (acetaminophen, morphine and phenytoin).The human CNS PBPK model could successfully predict their concentration-time profiles in multiple human CNS compartments in physiological CNS conditions within a 1.6-fold error. Furthermore, the model allowed investigation of the potential underlying mechanisms that can explain differences in CNS PK associated with pathophysiological changes. This analysis supports the relevance of the developed model to allow more effective selection of CNS drug candidates since it enables the prediction of CNS target-site concentrations in humans, which are essential for drug development and patient treatment.Graphical abstract

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