The role of lactose carrier on the powder behavior and aerodynamic performance of bosentan microparticles for dry powder inhalation

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In this study, we prepared carrier-based formulations for dry powder inhalers by mixing bosentan microparticles with carrier, prepared in three separate types of lactose. Spray-dried, milled and sieved lactose resulted in formulations with various shapes, surface morphology and particle size distributions. In the spray-dried lactose, the micronized bosentan particles were trapped and strongly interlocked in the rugged surface of spray-dried lactose, whereas in the milled and sieved lactose they exhibited lower binding affinity onto the smooth surface of carrier. In all of the carrier-based formulations, the flow properties were improved compared with bosentan microparticles alone, in the following order spray-dried, sieved and milled lactose. The aerodynamic characteristics of each were evaluated by particle image velocimetry and Andersen cascade impactor™. Depending on the lactose carrier type, particle dispersion showed different flow characteristics. In the spray-dried lactose, the formulation was dispersed fast in the only frontal direction, while the milled and sieved lactose formulations formed a relatively slower S-shaped and fountain-shaped flow stream, respectively. In addition, milled and sieved lactose formulations showed that the drug particles were readily liberated from the lactose carrier, and demonstrated significantly higher aerosol performance than spray-dried lactose.

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