In recent years scientific community has drawn a great deal of attention towards understanding the enigma of cluster of differentiation-44 (CD44) in order to deliver therapeutic agents more selectively towards tumor tissues. Moreover, its over-expression in variety of solid tumors has attracted drug delivery researchers to target this receptor with nanomedicines. Conventional nanomedicines based on biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are often associated with insufficient cellular uptake by cancer cells, due to lack of active targeting moiety on their surface. Therefore, to address this limitation, CD44 targeted PLGA nanomedicines has gained considerable interest for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we have elaborately discussed the recent progress in the design and synthesis of CD44 targeted PLGA nanomedicines used to improve tumor-targeted drug delivery. We have also discussed strategies based on co-targeting of CD44 with other targeting moieties such as folic acid, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), monoclonal antibodies using PLGA based nanomedicines.