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The potential mechanism of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis, and MAPKs were involved in the cardioprotective effect of this drug on myocardial I/R injury.Ninety healthy adult male Wistar rats were separately pretreated with normal saline (0.9%); PHC; and signal pathway blockers of MAPKs, Drp1, and Bcl-2. Coronary artery ligation and subsequent reperfusion were performed to induce myocardial I/R injury. Echocardiography was performed. Myocardial enzymes and oxidative stress markers were detected. Myocardial cell apoptotic rates and infarct sizes were measured. Mitochondrial function was evaluated. Expression levels of MAPKs, mitochondria regulatory proteins (Drp1, Mfn1/2), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax) were determined.PHC pretreatment improved myocardial abnormalities (dysfunction, injury, infarct size, and apoptotic rate), mitochondrial abnormalities (dysfunction and fission), and excessive oxidative stress and inhibited the activities of p38MAPK and JNK signal pathways in rats with myocardial I/R injury (P < 0.05). Additionally, p38MAPK and JNK blockers (SB239063 and SP600125, respectively) had an effect on rats same as that of PHC. Although Drp1 blocker (Mdivi-1) showed a similar cardioprotective effect (P < 0.05), it did not affect the expression of MAPKs and apoptosis-related proteins (P > 0.05). In addition, Bcl-2 blocker (ABT-737) caused a high expression of Drp1 and a low expression of Mfn1/2 (P < 0.05).PHC regulated mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis through p38MAPK and JNK signal pathways and provided cardioprotection in rats with myocardial I/R injury.