The continuing emergence of drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori (HP) drives the ongoing need for the development of new and effective anti-HP drugs. Urease inhibitor has now gained strong interest as an alternative approach for HP infections. 3-Chlorophenyl-3-hydroxypropionylhydroxamic acid (CPH), a novel urease inhibitor identified in our group, shows impressive potency, which was optically separated for a further exploration. Here, we report in vitro/in vivo pharmacological evaluation of (±)-CPHs and the enantiomers. The raceme and the individual enantiomers significantly suppress gastritis at 32 mg/kg b.i.d dose with lower toxicity to mammalian cells (with CC50s ≥ 3.16 mM) and mice (LD50s ≥ 2338 mg/kg) than the clinically used agent acetohydroxamic acid. Furthermore, a significant increase of eradication of HP is observed for the combination of (±)-CPHs or the enantiomers with an antimicrobial. These studies revealed that CPH is a promising candidate for an alternative treatment of HP-dependent conditions by targeting virulence factor urease, and CPH may be used as a raceme.