Platinated graphene oxide: A nanoplatform for efficient gene-chemo combination cancer therapy

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Abstract

Cisplatin (CisPt) is one of the most effective antitumor drugs against a wide range of solid cancers, and recent studies have indicated that combination of CisPt and RNA interference (RNAi) agents would effectively enhance therapeutic index, while the development of simple yet robust dual-delivery systems still remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrated that platinated graphene oxide is an excellent platform to achieve such goal. Nano-Graphene oxide (NGO) was easily platinated by CisPt, and the resulting CisPt/NGO was characterized by several aspects. As a proof-of-concept, an antisense microRNA-21 (Anti-miR-21) was employed as a potential RNAi agent. While most previous work functionalized NGO with cationic polymers for gene delivery, we demonstrated that platinated NGO is a potent carrier to load Anti-miR-21 with improved capacity and adsorption stability. With Anti-miR-21 loading, the system displayed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity to cancer cells, suggesting a synergistic effect. Finally, the underlying mechanism of the improved efficacy was explored, which can be ascribed to the cell apoptosis induced by Anti-miR-21 for gene silencing. This work demonstrated platinated graphene oxide as an effective nanocarrier to co-deliver CisPt and gene therapy for the treatment of cancer.

Graphical abstract

After platination, nano-graphene oxide becomes a better platform to load gene therapy, through which a facile yet robust dual-delivery system was developed, and synergistic cancer therapy was demonstrated.

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