Phytosome complexed with chitosan for gingerol delivery in the treatment of respiratory infection:In vitroandin vivoevaluation

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Respiratory infection is a viral spreading disease and a common issue, particularly in kids. The treatments are available but have so many limitations because the drawback of this disease is more morbidity and mortality in the severely immune compromised. Even, the phyto-constituent antibacterial drug Gingerol was selected to treat respiratory infection but it exhibits low bioavailability profile, less aqueous-solubility issue and most important is rapidly eliminated from the body. To overcome these problems, novel drug delivery (nanoparticle) based phytosome complexed with chitosan approach was implemented. In this research work, the phytosome (GP) was prepared by blending of gingerol with soya lecithin in organic solvent using anti-solvent precipitation technique and it was further loaded in the aqueous solution of chitosan to formulate the phytosome complexed with chitosan (GLPC). To optimize the formulations of gingerol, it was characterized for percentage yield, percentage entrapment efficiency, drug loading and particle size, physical compatibility studies etc. which demonstrated the confirmation of complex of GLPC with soya lecithin and chitosan. The % entrapment efficiency and % drug loading of GLPC was found (86.02 ± 0.18%, 08.26 ± 0.72%) and of GP (84.36 ± 0.42%, 08.05 ± 0.03%), respectively. The average particle size and zeta potential of GLPC and GP were 254.01 ± 0.05 nm (−13.11 mV), and 431.21 ± 0.90 nm (−17.53 mV), respectively which confirm the inhibition of particle aggregation by using chitosan in complex. The in vitro release rate of GP (86.03 ± 0.06%) was slower than GLPC (88.93 ± 0.33%) in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer up to 24 h by diffusion process (Korsmeyer Peppas model). The optimized GLPC and GP were shown irregular particle shapes & spherical and oval structures with smooth surface by SEM analysis. Furthermore, GLPC has shown the potent in vitro antioxidant activity, susceptible antibacterial activity and effective anti-inflammatory activity as compared to GP against stress, microbial infection and inflammation which were causable reason for the respiratory infections. GLPC has improved the significant bioavailability and also correlated the hematological values on rabbit blood against the incubation of microorganisms. Thus, the prepared nanoparticle based approach to deliver the gingerol, has the combined effect of chitosan and phytosome which shown better sustained-release profile and also prolonging the oral absorption rate of gingerol with effective antibacterial activity to treat respiratory infection.Graphical abstract

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