To determine genetic and environmental impact on mandibular morphology using lateral cephalometric analysis of twins with completed mandibular growth and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based zygosity determination.Materials and methods:
The 39 cephalometric variables of 141 same gender adult pair of twins were analysed. Zygosity was determined using 15 specific DNA markers and cervical vertebral maturation method was used to assess completion of the mandibular growth. A genetic analysis was performed using maximum likelihood genetic structural equation modelling (GSEM).Results:
The genetic heritability estimates of angular variables describing horizontal mandibular position in relationship to cranial base and maxilla were considerably higher than in those describing vertical position. The mandibular skeletal cephalometric variables also showed high heritability estimates with angular measurements being considerably higher than linear ones. Results of this study indicate that the angular measurements representing mandibular skeletal morphology (mandibular form) have greater genetic determination than the linear measurements (mandibular size).Conclusions:
The shape and sagittal position of the mandible is under stronger genetic control, than is its size and vertical relationship to cranial base.