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The Enamel Defects Index (EDI) was created based on three innovative principles: (i) a basic level of the three major categories of defects; (ii) more detailed subcategories of each major category; and (iii) each category scored independently as present  or absent , simplifying decision making. The aim of this investigation was to further test the index in a number of applications and to expand it to record defect subtype and treatment need. Testing was undertaken by operators with different levels of clinical experience. A computer-assisted learning (CAL) package was developed for operator training and calibration. The index was also used on clinical photographs and high-resolution digital images of exfoliated and extracted teeth. Scoring of photographs revealed substantial intra-operator agreement. Training using the CAL package resulted in significant improvement in index use. Intra-operator reproducibility was good to excellent, and interoperator reproducibility was good for buccal surfaces on digital images. Index expansion allowed information on defect subtype, location, and treatment need to be gathered readily. The EDI has high reproducibility and allows more rapid and accurate data collection from clinical and in vitro studies than the Fédération Dentaire Internationale Developmental Defects of Enamel index.