The purpose of the study was to examine whether patients' psychosocial profiles differ depending on if the location of pain is in the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint, or both. Eligible participants were 491 consecutive patients examined according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD). Among these a total of 225 adult TMD patients had at least one pain-related TMD diagnosis and were therefore included in this study and completed the multidimensional pain inventory (MPI). Patients diagnosed with myogenous pain only (n = 103), patients with joint pain only (n = 56), and patients with both (n = 66) were compared with respect to depression, somatization, jaw disability, pain intensity and chronicity, and MPI scores and profiles. The MPI profiles were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and Hotelling's T2 test. Although patients with joint pain were significantly more impaired in jaw function, no significant differences in depression, in somatization or in the 11 scales of the MPI were observed. The location of pain in TMD patients is not a major factor for the prediction of psychosocial profiles. Therefore, clinical TMD diagnoses alone form an insufficient basis for tailored behavioural or psychological management.