The effect of post-space treatment on the retention of fiber posts in different root regions was evaluated using two self-etching systems. Post spaces were prepared in extracted premolars and then the root canals were subjected to one of the following post-space treatments: (i) water irrigation (control); (ii) etching with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s; (iii) irrigation with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); and (iv) ultrasonic agitation associated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl irrigating solutions. The dentin surfaces were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after different post-space treatments. Fiber posts were then luted in the treated roots using resin cement with either Clearfil SE Bond or Clearfil DC Bond, and the thin-slice push-out test was performed. Scanning electron microscopy showed that all the post-space treatments tested were effective in removal of the smear layer of debris, or sealer/gutta-percha remnants, on the root canal. The apical push-out strength was affected by post-space treatment. Both 35% phosphoric acid etching and ultrasonic agitation in combination with EDTA/NaOCl irrigation improved the apical push-out strength of the fiber post, regardless of the type of self-etching system. A solo irrigation with an EDTA/NaOCl solution resulted in a lower apical push-out strength compared with the other two experimental groups.