Predictive and explanatory factors of cardiovascular disease in people with adequately controlled type 2 diabetes

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To explore the predictive and explanatory factors on the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the impact of visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of risk factors on incident cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes with no history of prior cardiovascular disease.


We performed a historical cohort study (2008–2011) on 481 people with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed at baseline and repeatedly during follow-up. The predictive analysis included the variables at enrollment, and explanatory analyses were based on mean of the variables measured repeatedly. VVV of the main variables was measured using the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the measured variables. Separate multivariate binary logistic models were constructed for each parameter with the incident cardiovascular disease.


Mean age of the participants was 54.9 years, mean glycated hemoglobin was 56 mmol/mol, and mean blood pressure was 125/78 mmHg. Incident cardiovascular disease developed in 14.3% of the participants. The 2-h post breakfast blood glucose was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (odds ratio 1.44; confidence interval = 1.08–1.90; p = 0.01). For each 1 mmol/l increase in postprandial glucose there was a 44% increase in risk of incident cardiovascular disease. VVV of glycemic indices, blood pressure, lipids, body mass index and creatinine were not associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events.


In this population of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease in whom other cardiovascular risk factors are within or near to the recommended targets, 2-h post breakfast blood glucose level is associated with incident cardiovascular disease.

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