Secondary prevention programme of ischaemic heart disease in the elderly: A randomised clinical trial

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Abstract

Background

Elderly patients have been underrepresented in secondary cardiovascular prevention programmes. This study aimed to ascertain the effects of a secondary coronary disease prevention programme in these patients.

Design

Open randomised intervention study with parallel groups.

Methods

One hundred and twenty-seven patients aged ≥70 years with a recent acute coronary syndrome were randomised to a protocolised clinical intervention plus usual care (intervention group, n = 64) or to usual care alone (control group, n = 63). Patients were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. The main outcome was the percentage of patients with optimal risk factor control after 12 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included changes in Mediterranean diet adherence, quality of life and functionality. Mortality was evaluated three years after the end of the intervention.

Results

One hundred and six patients (83.4%) completed 12 months of follow-up (54 in the intervention group and 52 in the control group). At the end of intervention, 34.2% more patients in the intervention group had achieved optimal risk factor control with a number needed to treat of 3 (relative risk 2.18, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 3.50). The intervention group improved adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = 0.013) and functionality assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery (p = 0.047). No differences between groups were found in quality of life (Short-Form 36 Health Survey) or mortality after three years (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.41 to 3.45).

Conclusions

A secondary coronary disease prevention programme in elderly patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome improved risk factor control, Mediterranean diet adherence and functionality.

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