Endothelial dysfunction as predictor of angina recurrence after successful percutaneous coronary intervention using second generation drug eluting stents

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Abstract

Background

The role of endothelial dysfunction in predicting angina recurrence after percutaneous coronary intervention is unknown.

Design

We assessed the role of peripheral endothelial dysfunction measured by reactive-hyperaemia peripheral-artery tonometry (RH-PAT) in predicting recurrence of angina after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods

We enrolled consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stents. RH-PAT was measured at discharge. The endpoint was repeated coronary angiography for angina recurrence and/or evidence of myocardial ischaemia at follow-up. Patients with in-stent restenosis and/or significant de novo stenosis were defined as having angina with obstructed coronary arteries (AOCA); all other patients as having angina with non-obstructed coronary arteries (ANOCA).

Results

Among 100 patients (mean age 66.7 ± 10.4 years, 80 (80.0%) male, median follow-up 16 (3–20) months), AOCA occurred in 14 patients (14%), ANOCA in nine patients (9%). Repeated coronary angiography occurred more frequently among patients in the lower RH-PAT index tertile compared with middle and upper tertiles (14 (41.2%) vs. 6 (18.2%) vs. 3 (9.1%), p = 0.006, respectively). ANOCA was more frequent in the lower RH-PAT index tertile compared with middle and upper tertiles. In the multivariate regression analysis, the RH-PAT index only predicted angina recurrence. The receiver operating characteristic curve of the RH-PAT index to predict the angina recurrence demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.69–0.89; p < 0.001), with a cut-off value of 1.705, having sensitivity 74% and specificity 70%.

Conclusions

Non-invasive assessment of peripheral endothelial dysfunction using RH-PAT might help in the prediction of recurrent angina after percutaneous coronary intervention, thus identifying patients who may need more intense pharmacological treatment and risk factor control.

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