Plant extracts containing caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid inhibit zoospore germination of Phytophthora spp. pathogenic to Theobroma cacao

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Abstract

The three most important species of Phytophthora worldwide causing black pod disease of cacao are P. palmivora, P. megakarya, and P. capsici. Chemicals are effective in controlling this disease but more natural methods would be preferred. One alternative is to use natural plant extracts. Rosemary and lavender leaf extracts were found to be effective in reducing germination of P. capsici, P. megakarya, and P. palmivora zoospores when supplemented to agar plates at different dilutions. The extracts displayed the biggest impact on P. megakarya zoospores where it completely inhibited germination at a 25% dilution of the prepared extract. When applied to cacao leaf disks, rosemary extract reduced necrosis caused by P. megakarya zoospores. In a bioassay, pears first treated with lavender extract showed no symptoms of P. megakarya infection compared with the non-treated controls. Based upon HPLC analyses, the active compound in these extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid or some simple derivative thereof. When added to agar plates, synthetic caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid completely inhibited germination of P. capsici, P. megakarya, and P. palmivora zoospores at concentrations of 3 and 6g l−1, respectively. In addition, sage and rice bran extracts, which both contain caffeic acid, were also effective in reducing zoospore germination. In contrast, inhibition of Botrytis cinerea or Trichoderma asperellum conidia germination did not occur, displaying some level of specificity. These extracts could provide an economically safe method for reducing damage caused by black pod disease on cacao until resistant varieties are developed and released.

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