The Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (ICQ) developed by Buhrmester and colleagues (1988) in the US assesses the multidimensional construct of social competence via five distinct, but related subscales. Two versions comprising 40 and 30 items, respectively, are available in German. The purpose of the current study is to develop and validate a brief version of the ICQ among a large adult sample that is representative of the German general population. Data were collected from 2,009 participants. Three confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted in order to develop and validate the ICQ-15. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were computed for the ICQ-15. An initial CFA with the ICQ-30 formed the basis for the selection of the items to be included in the ICQ-15. Two subsequent CFA’s with the ICQ-15 revealed an excellent fit of the hypothesized five-factor model to the observed data. Internal consistency coefficients were in the adequate range. This preliminary evaluation shows that the ICQ-15 is a structurally valid measure of interpersonal competence recommended for research contexts with limited assessment time and for psychotherapy progress tracking in clinical settings.