Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected cause of reproductive ill-health: rare presentations and review of the literature

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Abstract

Introduction

Investment in reproductive health may have tremendous benefits for women, families, and societies. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a health risk to women living in endemic areas.

Aim of the work

To discuss the pathology and clinical presentation of some rare types of FGS and to report some cases with unusual presentations in order to draw attention to this preventable and treatable disease in an endemic country like Egypt.

Material and methods

Five cases of gynecological schistosomiasis presenting to Ain Shams University Hospitals with unusual clinical presentations were retrieved. Their findings were discussed in relation to previously reported studies of schistosomiasis with a review of the literature.

Results

The five cases of gynecological schistosomiasis presented with infertility, ovarian swelling, endocervical polyp, schistosomal endometritis, and/or ectopic pregnancy. In all the previously mentioned cases, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and radiological investigations were not diagnostic. The diagnosis depended solely on histopathological examination.

Conclusion

FGS does not always present in the lower genital tract. It may infrequently affect the endometrium, tubes, ovaries, and/or pelvic peritoneum, leading to poor pregnancy outcome, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian swelling, or infertility.

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