The impact of lymphocytic infiltrates on the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostatic carcinoma

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Background and objective

Although lymphocytic infiltrate (LI) has been reported in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC), its role in BPH progression to PC is still a topic of debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of LI in PC progression through correlation of LI to expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclin D1 aiming to find a new diagnostic marker, or a potential therapeutic target that may improve PC management.

Materials and methods

We studied 100 BPH cases and 50% of these cases also had PC. Archived paraffin blocks were microtomed at 4–5 μm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin to revise diagnosis and grading. In addition, an immunohistochemical analysis was carried out using antibodies against CD3, CD20, NF-κB, and cyclin D1 and then these results were correlated with clinicopathological variables.


We found LI in both BPH and PC cases, with a predominance of T lymphocytes over B lymphocytes. There was a statistically significant correlation of LI to NF-κB (P<0.001), and cyclin D1 (P<0.001), and a statistically significant correlation of NF-κB to cycling D1 was detected (P<0.001). Cyclin D1 is expressed exclusively in the malignant prostatic epithelium.


The tense LI detected in prostate hyperplasia and carcinoma may activate NF-κB and this in turn may induce epithelial cell proliferation through cyclin D1 overexpression and neoplastic transformation. Cyclin D1 can be used to differentiate between BPH and PC.

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