Secondary Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Patientwith Isolated Extraperitoneal Injuries

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The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) associated with adverse physiologic consequences. The ACS ismost commonly diagnosed in patients sustaining abdominal or pelvic trauma, or suffering some other intraabdominal hemorrhagic catastrophe. Recently, several groups have reported cases in which patients sustaining extra-abdominal trauma developed ACS following acute resuscitation with crystalloids or blood. This secondary ACS (SACS) appears to be related to resuscitation-induced bowel edema and ascites. SACS is a poorly understood and characterized syndrome where the increased intra-abdominal pressure occurs without abdominal injury. Timely diagnosis is difficult because of its low incidence and major trauma to other body regions. We report a fatal case of SACS, which progressed to necrotic and gangrenous large bowel.

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