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Ruth Howard and Catherine Houghton present results from a literature review of use of first aid among parents or guardians whose children have sustained injuriesEvery day, children present to emergency departments (EDs) with injuries sustained at home, school and elsewhere. In the authors' experience, little, if any, first-aid measures or administration of pain relief are initiated before arrival at the ED. Articles on accident prevention are easily sourced, but studies of the general population's knowledge of first-aid skills are scarce. This article examines the research on parents' or guardians' pre-hospital knowledge of first aid, analgesia and non-pharmacological methods of pain relief for children who have been injured. It also discusses the literature on accident prevention.