The short-term effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on GTH I (FSH-like), GTH II (LH-like), and GH production by cultured rainbow trout pituitary cells was studied in immature fish of both sexes, at early gametogenesis and in spermiating and periovulatory animals. IGF-I had no effect on basal GTH I and GTH II release, whereas it always inhibited basal GH, showing decreasing intensity with the gonad maturation. In absence of IGF-I, GTH I and GTH II cells were always responsive to GnRH, whereas no response was observed for GH cells whatever the sexual stage. The action of IGF-I on the sensitivity to GnRH differs between GTH and GH cells. The former requires a coincubation with IGF−I (10−6 m)/GnRH to show an increase in sensitivity, independent of the sexual stage. To be responsive to GnRH, the GH cells require longer exposure to IGF-I, the efficiency of which decreases with gonad maturation. The action of IGF-I (10−6 m) on GTH cell sensitivity to GnRH does not seem to be related to a mitogenic effect or to an improvement in cell survival. It seems to be IGF-I specific, not passing via the insulin receptor. Certain hypotheses on the putative role of IGF-I and GnRH as a link between growth and puberty are suggested.