This study evaluated early renal functional, structural, and biochemical changes in high-calorie/high-fat diet fed mice, a model of prediabetes and alimentary obesity. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed normal (11 kcal% fat) or high-fat (58 kcal% fat) diets for 16 wk. Renal changes were evaluated by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, ELISA, enzymatic assays, and chemiluminometry. High-fat diet consumption led to increased body and kidney weights, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, polyuria, a 2.7-fold increase in 24-h urinary albumin excretion, 20% increase in renal glomerular volume, 18% increase in renal collagen deposition, and 8% drop of glomerular podocytes. It also resulted in a 5.3-fold increase in urinary 8-isoprostane excretion and a 38% increase in renal cortex 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation. 4-hydroxynonenal adduct level and immunoreactivity or Sirtuin 1 expression in renal medulla were not affected. Studies of potential mechanisms of the high-fat diet induced renal cortex oxidative injury revealed that whereas nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form oxidase activity only tended to increase, 12/15-lipoxygenase was significantly up-regulated, with approximately 12% increase in the enzyme protein expression and approximately 2-fold accumulation of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a marker of 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. Accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff -positive material, concentrations of TGF-β, sorbitol pathway intermediates, and expression of nephrin, CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, phosphoeukaryotic initiation factor-α, and total eukaryotic initiation factor-α in the renal cortex were indistinguishable between experimental groups. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were reduced in high-fat diet fed mice. In conclusion, systemic and renal cortex oxidative stress associated with 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression and activation is an early phenomenon caused by high-calorie/high-fat diet consumption and a likely contributor to kidney disease associated with prediabetes and alimentary obesity.