The Ubiquitin Ligase Siah2 Regulates PPARγ Activity in Adipocytes

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Moderate reductions in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ levels control insulin sensitivity as effectively as activation of PPARγ in adipocytes by the thiazolidinediones. That observation suggests that PPARγ activity can be regulated by modulating the amount of PPARγ protein in adipocytes. Activation of PPARγ in adipocytes is linked to changes in PPARγ protein levels via increased degradation of PPARγ proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Identification of the ubiquitin ligase or ligases that recognize ligand bound PPARγ is an essential step in determining the physiological significance of the relationship between activation and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of PPARγ. Using an RNA interference-based screen, we identified five RING (really interesting new gene)-type ubiquitin ligases that alter PPARγ protein levels in adipocytes. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila seven-in-absentia homolog 2 (Siah2), a mammalian homolog of Drosophila seven-in-absentia, regulates PPARγ ubiquitylation and ligand-dependent activation of PPARγ in adipocytes. We also demonstrate that Siah2 expression is up-regulated during adipogenesis and that PPARγ interacts with Siah2 during adipogenesis. In addition, Siah2 is required for adipogenesis. These data suggest that modulation of PPARγ protein levels by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is essential in determining the physiological effects of PPARγ activation in adipocytes.

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