Effects of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-δ Agonist GW501516 on Bone and Muscle in Ovariectomized Rats

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Abstract

Estrogen deficiency promotes bone loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have 3 subtypes (α, δ, and γ). PPARγ agonists induce bone loss, whereas PPARα agonists increase bone mass. Although PPARδ agonists are known to influence skeletal muscle metabolism, the skeletal effects are unsettled. This study investigated the musculoskeletal effects of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats, 12 weeks of age, were allocated to a sham-operated group and 3 OVX groups; high-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW5), low-dose GW501516 (OVX-GW1), and a control group (OVX-CTR), respectively (n = 12 per group). Animals received GW501516 or vehicle (methylcellulose) daily for 4 months by gavage. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the femur, spine, and whole body. Bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia was assessed by microcomputed tomography, and dynamic histomorphometry was performed. Quadriceps muscle morphology and the relative expression of mitochondrial proteins were analyzed. Bone metabolism markers and metabolic markers were measured in plasma. After 4 months, the OVX-GW5 group displayed lower femoral BMD than OVX-CTR. Trabecular separation was higher in the GW-treated groups, compared with OVX-CTR. The OVX-GW5 group also exhibited lower cortical area fraction and a higher structure model index than OVX-CTR. These effects coincided with impaired bone formation in both GW groups. The OVX-GW5 group displayed elevated triglyceride levels and reduced adiponectin levels, whereas no effects on muscle morphology or mitochondrial gene expression appeared. In summary, the PPARδ agonist GW501516 negatively affected bone properties in OVX rats, whereas no effects were detected in skeletal muscle.

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