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Previous studies have demonstrated antimicrobial substantivity in root canal dentin up to 7 days after treatment with chlorhexidine. This in vitro study assessed the antimicrobial substantivity of chlorhexidine-treated bovine root dentin over a period of 21 days. Sixty standardized bovine root sections were randomly divided into three equal groups, and their canals immersed in one of the following solutions: (i) sterile saline; (ii) 2.5% NaOCl; or (iii) 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Half the specimens in each group were treated with the solution for 5 min and the other half for 7 days. After solutions were removed, the specimens were incubated at 37°C in Brain Heart Infusion broth containing Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). A fresh inoculum was added to the broth every other day over a 21-day period. The canals were then enlarged with sterile burs, and the dentin shavings collected and cultured for the presence of cultivable bacteria in the dentinal tubules. Specimens treated with CHX for 7 days demonstrated significantly less dentin colonization by E. faecalis than the other specimens. CHX has potential as an intracanal medicament, if it can be applied for a period of at least 7 days.