|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The purpose of this study was the in vitro evaluation of four techniques for the obturation of the root canal system in the presence or absence of a smear layer. Ninety-six human upper central incisors were instrumented using the pressureless crown-down technique and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl. The teeth that had the smear layer removed were irrigated with this solution in combination with 17% EDTA. The teeth were obturated with lateral condensation with an accessory or standardized cone as the main cone, with vertical condensation of warm gutta-percha or with thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha. Apical leakage was assessed by measuring the linear penetration of methylene blue dye with a stereomicroscope. The results showed no significant differences in the degree of leakage with and without the smear layer when the samples were considered as a whole. However, when the groups were assessed separately, teeth in the lateral condensation with an accessory main cone group and teeth in the thermoplasticized group leaked less with a smear layer present. In contrast teeth with lateral condensation and a standardized main cone leaked more with a smear layer present. In the vertical condensation groups there was no difference attributable to the smear layer.