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One hundred twenty-three pulp cappings had been performed by students in 1984 to 1987 (= 10-yr group) or in 1990 to 1992 (= 5-yr group) and were followed up in 1997. Teeth were checked for sensitivity (CO2/electrical pulp testing), percussion, and palpation; radiographs were taken to assess periapical status. In addition several other factors were determined that might have an influence on the success or failure rates, such as base material, type of restoration, site of exposure, etc. Results showed 44.5% failures (18.5% questionable and 37% successful cases) in the 5-yr group and 79.7% failing, 7.3% questionable, and 13% successful cases in the 10-yr group. As a factor of influence, the placement of a definitive restoration within the first 2 days after pulp exposure was found to contribute significantly to the survival rate of these teeth.