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Artificial lesions simulating pathological conditions were made in mandibles from human cadavers. Roentgenograms of the lesions were made and compared with the specimens of bone. Lesions in cortical bone can be detected roentgenographically only if there is perforation of the bone cortex, erosion from the inner surface of the bone cortex, or extensive erosion or destruction from the outer surface. Lesions in cancellous bone cannot be detected roentgenographically. Extensive disease of bone may be present even when there is no evidence of it on roentgenograms.