|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of teeth during four different root canal obturation techniques. Sixty extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars with a single canal were used. After root canal cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 15 teeth each and obturated with Thermafil obturators or Soft-Core obturators using Ultrafil or Trifecta low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques. Temperature changes on the external mesial root surfaces were measured using a thermal imaging camera. Lower temperature rises were found for Ultrafil and Trifecta techniques (2.14°C and 2.03°C, respectively) than for Thermafil and Soft-Core techniques (3.87°C and 3.67°C, respectively). These findings suggest that solid core gutta-percha combined with low-temperature injectable gutta-percha obturation techniques may impose less risk for thermal damage to the surrounding periradicular tissues.