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An in vitro agar model was developed to study the effect of intracanal medicaments on periapical tissues and was used to study the diffusion of three calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) medicaments of varying viscosity through simulated root canals with various sizes of apical foramina. Experimental medicaments were added to pipette tips used to represent tooth roots, which were fixed in syringes containing brain heart infusion agar and calcium-reactive dye. OH− and Ca++ concentrations were measured in the agar at 30 minutes and 24 hours. Ca++ concentration and pH increased with larger aperture sizes, and higher pH and Ca++ diffusion was produced by a 10% Ca(OH)2 solution than was produced by Pulpdent or a Ca(OH)2 paste. The results suggest that the properties of the Ca(OH)2-containing vehicle could affect the action of the medicament in the periapical tissues.