Soft Tissue Management in Endodontic Surgery

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Modern endodontic surgery involves both root-end preparation and proper sealing of all apical portals of exit. Both components are requirements for mechanical and biological success, but the management of soft tissues becomes increasingly important for an esthetically successful treatment. A healthy appearance of soft tissues plays an important role in the esthetic outcome of periradicular surgery. This is true considering maintenance of attachment levels and regarding the amount of possible recession after surgical procedures. Complete, recession-free and predictable healing of gingival tissue is one important goal of endodontic surgical treatment. A critical review of currently used techniques based on clinical and scientific data reveals great potential for improvements. Possible reasons for scar formation and recession specifically in healthy periodontal conditions requiring surgical endodontic intervention are highlighted. Based on anatomical considerations various incision types are evaluated and recommendations made. Clear understanding of wound closure and tissue-healing patterns call for the use of atraumatic procedures, nonirritating suture materials and adequate suturing techniques. This article gives an overview and guidance for integrating current and new successful flap designs and wound closure methods. The methods described have the intention of maintaining the attachment level and avoiding postoperative recession after surgical endodontic therapy.

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