Dens Evaginatus: Literature Review, Pathophysiology, and Comprehensive Treatment Regimen

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Dens evaginatus (DE) is an uncommon dental anomaly, having been well documented since 1925. It occurs primarily in people of Asian descent and is exhibited by protrusion of a tubercle from occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth, and lingual surfaces of anterior teeth. Tubercles have an enamel layer covering a dentin core containing a thin extension of pulp. These cusp-like protrusions are susceptible to pulp exposure from wear or fracture because of malocclusion, leading to pulpal complications soon after eruption. Endodontic intervention of permanent teeth with immature roots is unpredic for inflamed pulps, and leaves a tooth with compromised root structure when treating necrotic pulps. Efforts to ensure root maturity have involved preventive or prophylactic treatment with varying degrees of pulp invasiveness. Treatment options have changed as technology and materials have improved. The goal is to review the literature and pathophysiology regarding DE, and present a new comprehensive treatment regimen, including a truly prophylactic approach without pulpal invasiveness. A case study of a mestizo with DE is documented. Treatment of four affected mandibular premolars exhibiting three distinct diagnostic categories will illustrate various aspects of the treatment protocol presented, and tooth morphology of the anomaly is shown to aid clinical recognition.

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