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The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of temporary fillings. The direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Revoltek LC, Tempit, Systemp inlay, and IRM. These were tested in contact with Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. The materials were examined immediately after setting, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after aging in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey multiple comparison. Systemp inlay, Tempit, and IRM exhibited antibacterial properties when in contact with S. mutans for at least 7 days, Tempit and IRM sustained this ability for at least 14 days. When in contact with E. faecalis Tempit and IRM were antibacterial immediately after setting, IRM sustained this ability for at least 1 day. Our study suggests that the difference in temporary filling materials may influence which microorganism will be able to invade the root canal system.