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One of the factors influencing the success of endodontic treatment is anatomic knowledge of the root canal system. Because of the difficulties of using conventional radiographic methods to evaluate root canals, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been very useful for evaluating the morphology of root canals. The purpose of this study was to use CBCT to evaluate differences in the anatomy of the mandibular first molars with respect to the patient's sex and the location of the tooth in a Brazilian population.The study included CBCT images from 198 patients (106 women and 92 men), representing a total of 342 teeth.Of the 342 mandibular first molars included in the study, 0.3% had 2 canals, 75.1% had 3 canals, 23.7% had 4 canals, and 0.9% had 5 canals. The ages of the patients ranged from 19 to 81 years old, with an average age of 48.9 years. Women were more likely to have 2 canals on the distal root of the right side than men were (P < .05).Because the Brazilian population has differences in root canal morphology compared with other populations around the world, further studies are needed to aid endodontic diagnosis and treatment.