Antimicrobial Efficacy of Triple Antibiotic–eluting Polymer Nanofibers against Multispecies Biofilm

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The elimination of microbial flora in cases of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp is both key and a challenging goal for the long-term success of regenerative therapy. Recent research has focused on the development of cell-friendly intracanal drug delivery systems. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial action of 3-dimensional (3D) tubular-shaped triple antibiotic–eluting nanofibrous constructs against a multispecies biofilm on human dentin. Polydioxanone polymer solutions, antibiotic-free or incorporated with metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline, were electrospun into 3D tubular-shaped constructs. A multispecies biofilm consisting of Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis was forced inside the dentinal tubules via centrifugation in a dentin slice in vitro model. The infected specimens were exposed to 2 experimental groups (ie, 3D tubular-shaped triple antibiotic–eluting constructs and triple antibiotic paste [TAP]) and 2 control groups (7-day biofilm untreated and antibiotic-free 3D tubular-shaped constructs). Biofilm elimination was quantitatively analyzed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis showed a dense population of viable (green) bacteria adhered to dentin and penetrated into the dentinal tubules. Upon 3D tubular-shaped triple antibiotic–eluting nanofibrous construct exposure, nearly complete elimination of viable bacteria on the dentin surface and inside the dentinal tubules was shown in the CLSM images, which was similar (P < .05) to the bacterial death promoted by the TAP group but significantly greater when compared with both the antibiotic-free 3D tubular-shaped constructs and the control (saline). The proposed 3D tubular-shaped antibiotic-eluting construct showed pronounced antimicrobial effects against the multispecies biofilm tested and therefore holds significant clinical potential as a disinfection strategy before regenerative endodontics.HighlightsAntibiotic nanofibers led to significant biofilm death.Antibiotic nanofibers are a more cell-friendly disinfection strategy than triple antibiotic paste (TAP).Dental pulp stem cell proliferation was higher (day 7) on fiber-treated dentin compared with TAP.

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