Lactobacillus plantarumLipoteichoic Acid Inhibits Oral Multispecies Biofilm

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Introduction:Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory disease in the periradicular region of teeth that results from infection by multispecies bacterial biofilm residing in the root canal system. In this study, we investigated whether Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) could inhibit multispecies oral pathogenic bacterial biofilm formation.Methods:Highly pure and structurally intact Lp.LTA was purified from L. plantarum. Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis were co-cultured to form oral multispecies biofilm in the presence or absence of Lp.LTA on culture plates or human dentin slices. Preformed biofilm was treated with or without Lp.LTA, followed by additional treatment with intracanal medicaments such as calcium hydroxide or chlorhexidine digluconate. Confocal microscopy and crystal violet assay were performed to determine biofilm formation. Biofilm on human dentin slices was visualized with a scanning electron microscope.Results:Biofilm formation of multispecies bacteria on the culture dishes was dose-dependently reduced by Lp.LTA compared with the nontreatment control group. Lp.LTA also inhibited multispecies biofilm formation on the dentin slices in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, Lp.LTA was shown to reduce preformed multispecies biofilm compared with the nontreatment group. Moreover, Lp.LTA potentiated the effectiveness of the intracanal medicaments in the removal of preformed multispecies biofilm.Conclusions:These results suggest that Lp.LTA is a potential anti-biofilm agent for treatment or prevention of oral infectious disease, including apical periodontitis, which is mainly caused by multispecies bacterial biofilm.

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