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The aim of the present study was to compare sonic activation using EDDY (VDW, Munich, Germany), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and mechanical activation using the XPendo Finisher (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-des-Fonds, Switzerland) for the removal of calcium hydroxide from artificial grooves in straight root canals.The root canals of 90 human maxillary incisors with straight root canals were prepared using Mtwo files (VDW) up to size 40/.04, and the teeth were split longitudinally. A lateral groove in the apical or coronal part was prepared in each root half and filled with calcium hydroxide, and the root halves were reassembled. Five groups were established according to the removal techniques: group A, the XPendo Finisher; group B, EDDY; group C, PUI; group D, manual irrigation with a syringe; and group E, no irrigation (the control group). The activation procedures were performed for 30 seconds with 3 mL sodium hypochlorite 3% as the irrigant. The cleanliness of the grooves was scored under 10× magnification. The median of scoring was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P = .05).All activation techniques were significantly more effective in the removal of calcium hydroxide than manual irrigation (P < .05). Regarding the apical groove, EDDY and PUI were significantly more effective in the removal of calcium hydroxide than the XPendo Finisher (P < .05). No difference was found for the coronal groove (P > .05).EDDY and PUI were significantly more effective in the removal of calcium hydroxide than the XPendo Finisher regarding the apical region. Manual irrigation was significantly less effective than all activation techniques.