Angiotensin II Regulates Proliferation and Function of Stem Cells of Apical Papilla

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IntroductionStem cells of apical papilla (SCAP) may be affected by inflammatory mediators released by activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from infected pulpal cavities of necrotic immature teeth. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the presence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the modulation of SCAP in vitro.MethodsPrimary cultures of SCAP were incubated with LPS (0.1–10 μg/mL) for cell viability and quantification of the chemokine CCL2. Components of RAS were searched by gene expression of angiotensinogen (AGTN), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), renin, angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) and 2 (AT2), and Mas receptor. Ang II was investigated in SCAP supernatants. Immunofluorescence was used to detect AGTN and AT1. Next, cells were treated with Ang II for viability/proliferation assessment, quantification of CCL2 and interleukin 6, and mineralization assay. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance using Tukey post hoc comparisons or the Student t test. P values <.05 were considered to be significant.ResultsLPS increased CCL2 production at 1 and 10 μg/mL. The gene expression of AGTN, renin, ACE, and AT1 was detected, but only ACE was increased by LPS. Ang II peptide was found in SCAP supernatants but unaltered by LPS. Both AGTN and AT1 proteins were detected by immunostaining. Ang II significantly induced SCAP proliferation, increased CCL2 production, down-regulated IL-6 release, and reduced the SCAP mineralization rate.ConclusionsA local RAS was found at the apical papilla, and Ang II was able to modulate SCAP function in vitro.

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