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The aim of this study was to investigate the root canal system morphology of maxillary first premolars by means of micro–computed tomographic imaging in a Swiss-German population.The root canal configuration (RCC) of 115 maxillary first premolars (Mx1Ps) were investigated by means of micro–computed tomographic imaging and 3-dimensional imaging. The RCC and the physiological foramina results are described by a 4-digit system code.Twelve different RCCs were observed in 30 single-rooted Mx1Ps; 2-2-2/2 (30.0%), 1-2-2/2 (13.3%), 1-2-1/2 (10%), and 2-2-1/2 (10.0%) were the most frequent ones. Seven different RCCs were observed in 2-rooted Mx1Ps (n = 81) in which the 1-1-1/1 (56.8%), 1-1-1/2 (29.6%), and 1-1-2/2 (8.6%) in the buccal root and 1-1-1/1 (92.6%) and 1-1-1/2 (6.2%) in the palatal root RCCs appeared most frequently. Three-rooted Mx1Ps (n = 4) showed a 1-1-1/1 (100.0%) RCC in all roots. The buccal root canal in 2-rooted Mx1Ps had 1 physiological foramen in 59.3% and 2 in 40.7% and 1 to 6 accessory foramina in 38.2%. The palatal root canal showed 1 physiological foramen in 93.8% and 2 in 6.2% and 1 to 2 accessory foramina in 14.8%. Single-rooted Mx1Ps showed 1 physiological foramen in 10.0%, 2 in 70.0%, 3 in 13.3%, and 4 in 6.7% and 1 to 3 accessory foramina in 46.7%.The results of this study provide detailed morphologic RCC information of Mx1Ps in a Swiss-German population. Single-rooted Mx1Ps showed morphologic diversifications more frequently than 2- or 3-rooted Mx1Ps. Within 2-rooted Mx1Ps, the buccal root had higher RCC variety, accessory canals, and foramina number than the palatal root.