To update outcomes of the Diet-Exercise-Activity-Lifestyle (DEAL) program, a clinic-based diabetes prevention intervention.Methods:
Changes in weight, fasting blood glucose, and 2-hour glucose after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated in patients who enrolled in the DEAL program between January 2007 and August 2009.Results:
The 221 qualified participants had a mean age of 62 years, weight of 87.4 kg, body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2, fasting glucose level of 109 mg/dL, and 2-hour glucose value of 138 mg/dL. Among the program participants, 67% were women and 88% were white; 56% had isolated impaired fasting glucose, 5% had impaired glucose tolerance only, and 39% had both. The 6-month follow-up medical appointment was kept by 72% of program participants, but only 56% attended the 12-month visit. By 6 months after baseline, 59% had significantly lower fasting glucose concentrations, 59% had improvement in 2-hour glucose levels, and 61% had weight loss. Nearly 40%, however, were nonresponders and had increased fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and weight by 6 months. By the 12-month visit, significant declines in fasting glucose (P<.001), 2-hour glucose (P<.001), and weight (P = .008) occurred in comparison with baseline values; however, no significant changes occurred in these measures between the 6- and 12-month visits (P>.30 for all).Conclusion:
Most DEAL participants showed improvement in glucose levels and weight, but some patients exhibited worsening glucose intolerance. Factors underlying nonresponse need to be identified. Ongoing experience and analysis should help revise the DEAL program so that outcomes for all participating patients will improve.