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To compare long-term outcomes of endovascular and surgical treatment of arterial aneurysms in patients with vasculo-Behçet disease (VBD).The medical records of 912 patients with Behçet disease who were seen between May 1995 and January 2007 were reviewed. Among them, 34 (3.7%) patients with 39 non-cerebral aneurysmal lesions were diagnosed with VBD. Between February 1998 and November 2006, 16 VBD patients (14 men; mean age 39.2±9.2 years, range 25-63) were treated for 20 arterial aneurysms with an endovascular technique (stent-graft and/or coil embolization). All patients received immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone 60 mg/d) before endovascular therapy to induce remission. From February 1993 to January 2007, 8 arterial aneurysms in 7 patients (all men; mean age 33.0±7.9 years, range 25-51) were treated with surgical graft interposition over 31.5±23.2 months.The endovascular procedure was successful in all lesions. The mean follow-up was 47.6±41.8 months, during which 4 complications in 3 patients (3/16, 18.8%) occurred (2 occluded stent-grafts and 2 access site pseudoaneurysm). There were no deaths. The cumulative primary patency rate in the endovascular group was 89% at 24 months. In the 7 patients undergoing graft interposition for 8 arterial aneurysms, 3 (42.9%) events occurred in follow-up: 2 recurrent pseudoaneurysms and 1 aneurysm-related death.In Behçet disease, aneurysm treatment is performed whenever possible because of the high risk of rupture. Endovascular treatment of arterial aneurysms was effective and safe, with an acceptable vascular complication rate and excellent patency of the treated site.