Endoleak Visualized With Carbon Dioxide Angiography During Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Using the Endurant Stent-Graft

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Purpose:To make interventionists aware of the potential for type IV endoleak on completion carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) using the Endurant stent-graft.Case Report:A 74-year-old man with chronic kidney disease underwent EVAR with an Endurant stent-graft using CO2 angiography to guide graft placement. Completion CO2 angiography demonstrated immediate accumulation of CO2 in the aneurysm sac suggestive of an endoleak, but confirmatory angiography with conventional iodinated contrast showed no evidence of an endoleak. We speculate that this is a type IV endoleak, and graft porosity may be responsible.Conclusion:Interventionists should be alerted to the possibility of visualizing these endoleaks through Endurant stent-grafts under CO2 angiography. Further work should be done to elucidate the exact mechanism of the endoleak.

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