From Transcriptional Profiling to Tumor Biology in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

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Abstract

This review summarizes the way in which inherited mutations define global gene expression in pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL), and how the use of gene expression analysis has advanced our understanding of these diseases. The biology of PCC and PGL tumors is diverse and it has become clear that there is no apparent single biology that defines these tumors. However, over the last 20 years, our understanding of the biology of PGL and PCC has been considerably advanced by the discovery of inherited mutations that predispose individuals to developing the disease. More recently, the use of transcriptomics to stratify tumors based on their gene expression profiles has, in particular, played a vital role in delineating novel mutations involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the biology of cluster 1 (pseudohypoxic) tumors and how mutations that result in the pseudohypoxic phenotype that leads to changes in global gene expression. We also review the advances in our understanding of cluster 2 tumors, and in particular, focus on the newly described MAX tumors.

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