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Reviews on the inflammatory role of adipose tissue outside the field of metabolism are rare. There is increasing evidence provided by numerous basic research studies from nearly all internal medicine subspecializations that adipocytes and adipocytokines are involved in primary inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is the aim of the present review to discuss and to summarize the current knowledge on the inflammatory role of adipocytokines and special types of regional adipocytes such as retroorbital, synovial, visceral, subdermal, peritoneal, and bone marrow adipocytes in internal medicine diseases. Future clinical and therapeutic implications are discussed.