Cell-to-cell interactions

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The narrow anatomic periodontal space between the root surface and the alveolar bone is relatively poor in cells. However, a broad range of noxious stimuli, most frequently root canal infection, will result in the accumulation of a large number of inflammatory cells in the periapical region of the affected tooth/root. The encounter between invading microorganisms and host cells as well as the interactions of resident and immigrating cells will determine the course of the inflammatory events that may take place. This review attempts to summarize current knowledge on how cellular interactions may contribute to dynamic equilibrium between protective, self-maintaining, propagating, destructive and downregulating events in apical periodontitis.

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